Imagine a galaxy reflected in a fun house hall between mirrors. You can see that the galaxy is repeated many times and each image is more grotesque and distorted.That’s what the universe looks like near the event horizon Black Hole, One of the most distorted places in the universe.
Physicists had some previous thoughts about what such areas would look like, but the new calculations have the potential to accurately show and test what you see around a black hole. Open a new way EinsteinOf general relativity.
Around and around
The area near the black hole is certainly very strange. When you look directly at a heavy object, your eyes are less focused.Rays are swallowed by black holes Event horizon, The point that cannot escape the influence of its huge gravity.
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However, if you place the galaxy behind a black hole and look sideways, you will see a distorted image of the galaxy. That’s because the light from the galaxy barely grabs the edge of the black hole and doesn’t fall.
Due to the extreme gravity of black holes, such light bends towards your line of sight. Curiously, the galaxy appears to be far away from the black hole, not directly behind it.
The gravity around the black hole is so strong and the space-time is so distorted that the light itself can orbit the black hole at a certain distance. Some of the light from the background galaxy is trapped and loops forever.
However, the light must be exactly at the correct distance from the black hole to be trapped in orbit. You may also hit a black hole at an angle that allows you to create one (or more) loops before you finally escape.
Looking at the edge of a black hole, your eyes will see one image of the background galaxy from its deflected light. Then you will see a second image of the galaxy, from the rays that were able to make one orbit before escaping, from the rays that made two orbits, and so on.
For decades, physicists have known with a simple estimate that each image is e ^ 2 𝜋 times closer than the last image.
In that formula, e Is the base of Natural logarithm, And that is approximately equal to 2.7182. Pi Is different Irrational number So about 3.14159, so e ^ 2 𝜋 is very close to 500. This means that each time you repeat the same background object, it will be about 500 times closer to the edge of the black hole than the last object.
Do it in a difficult way
Physicists could get that simple result using pen and paper calculations, but when scrutinizing the behavior of complex spatiotemporal curvature near black holes, a special coefficient of 500 is perfectly present. I didn’t know if it was accurate.
In a new study, Albert Sneppen, a graduate student at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, uses numerical methods to orbit (and escape) the physics of rays near a black hole. I simulated scholarship. He confirmed that the factor of 500 remained the same with very accurate processing.His results were published in the journal on 9th July Science report..
“It’s wonderfully beautiful to understand why images are repeated in such an elegant way,” Sneppen said. Said in a statement..
Sneppen found that the coefficient of 500 applies only to simplified immobile black holes. Black holes in the real universe rotate. This changes the way light orbits a black hole. This will change how far the images are displayed.
“When it spins really fast, you no longer need to be 500 times closer to a black hole, but it turns out to be quite small,” Sneppen said. “In fact, each image is now only 50, 5, or nearly double the edge of a black hole.”
The rotation of the black hole twists the space-time around it, so each successive image of the background object looks flatter. Therefore, the farthest image may appear relatively undistorted, while the closest image may not be completely recognizable.
In a fun home
Technically, there are countless repeating images of background objects, each approaching the event horizon. In reality, even the most powerful telescopes can solve very few things, so humans may never see them.
But a few of them provide a strong perspective at the heart of General theory of relativity, A mathematical theory that explains gravity.
In 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope, a worldwide culinary network, was created. First image Of the “shadow” of a black hole cast on the surrounding gas and dust. The telescope wasn’t powerful enough to capture multiple fanhouse mirror images of background objects, but future telescopes were possible.
Comparing how real-world objects differ from what we expect from sneppen-like calculations will provide an unprecedented test of general relativity. For example, if there is a supernova behind a black hole (a supernova explosion of a dying star), you can see the supernova disappear many times. Each image has a certain delay depending on the number of times it orbits the black hole, allowing researchers to compare theory with reality.
We must be willing to stare at the emptiness long enough.
Originally published in Live Science.
Black holes warp the universe into a grotesque hall of mirrors Source link Black holes warp the universe into a grotesque hall of mirrors