The neurotransmitters GABA and glutamate have complementary roles. GABA suppresses neurons, but glutamate makes them more active. Published on July 22 PLOS BiologyResearchers led by Roi Cohen Kadosh and George Zacharopoulos of the University of Oxford have shown that the levels of these two neurotransmitters in the intraparietal sulcus of the brain can predict mathematical ability. The study also found that as a child grows into an adult, the relationship between the two neurotransmitters and math fluency switches.
The level of excitement / inhibition in the brain is thought to be particularly relevant to learning during the critical period. However, little is known about how they relate to complex learning that can take place over decades. To address this issue, researchers have measured GABA levels and Glutamic acid To 255 people from 6 years old to college students. Participants also took two math achievement tests, and their performance on math problems correlated with GABA and glutamate levels.
The team is in it Young peopleThe higher the GABA level in the left intraparietal sulcus (upper, left, and posterior folds of the brain), the more math fluent it was, and vice versa for glutamate. In adults, the results were almost the opposite. Low GABA concentrations were associated with improved math fluency, and vice versa for glutamate. Participants were tested twice, approximately every 1.5 years, so researchers could also show that neurotransmitter levels during the first test could predict the achievement of mathematics at a later date.
Much of what we know about GABA, glutamate, and learning comes from laboratory rodent experiments and about natural school-based skills such as mathematics that develop over time. Can’t say anything directly.this Longitudinal study For humans, it helps researchers better understand the relationship between learning and brain plasticity, especially at critical times over the years.
“The discovery of developmental switches and academic performance in the association of GABA with glutamate highlights a common and unknown principle of plasticity. Previously on humans or animals focused on a narrower developmental stage,” said Cohen Kadosh. In contrast to studies, our cross-sectional longitudinal studies suggest that the association between plasticity and brain excitement and inhibition over different stages is unlikely to remain unchanged. brainBased intervention program. I would like to consider it in the future. ”
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Zacharopoulos G, Sella F, Cohen Kadosh K, Hartwright C, Emir U, Cohen Kadosh R (2021) Prediction of learning and achievement using GABA and glutamate concentrations in human development. PLoS Biol 19 (7): e3001325. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001325
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